Xiaochangliang XCL , located in the Nihewan Basin of North China, is a key archaeological locality for understanding the behavioural evolution of early humans. XCL dates to ca. Here we describe the lithic assemblages from XCL, providing information on stone tool reduction techniques and the influence of raw materials on artefact manufacture. The XCL hominins used both bipolar and freehand reduction techniques to manufacture small flakes, some of which show retouch. Bipolar reduction methods at XCL were used more frequently than previously recognized. Comparison of XCL with other Early Pleistocene sites in the Nihewan Basin indicates the variable use of bipolar and freehand reduction methods, thereby indicating a flexible approach in the utilization of raw materials. The stone tools from XCL and the Nihewan sites are classifiable as Mode I lithic assemblages, readily distinguished from bifacial industries manufactured by hominins in Eastern Asia by ca. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Magnetostratigraphic dating of the Hougou Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin, North China
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Most hominin or Palaelithic sites in China from the early Pleistocene are found in the Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in China.
Here, we report a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site that was found in the northeastern Nihewan Basin in The artifact layer is suggested to be located in the Matuyama reversed polarity chron just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai polarity subchron, yielding an estimated age of ca 1. This provides new evidence for hominid occupation in North China in the earliest Pleistocene. The earliest hominids are argued to have lived in a habitat of open grasslands mixed with patches of forests close to the bank of the Nihewan paleolake as indicated from faunal compositions.
Hominid migrations to East Asia during the Early Pleistocene are suggested to be a consequence of increasing cooling and aridity in Africa and Eurasia. Knowing the precise age ranges of early hominid habitation and stone technologies in different regions of the world is a key component for a comprehensive understanding of human evolution. It comprises one of the most detailed sets of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic evidence from the whole of Asia1.
Therefore, it has become a major area of archaeological research and a prime focus of investigations into early human evolution in East Asia During the past decades, more than 60 Paleolithic sites associated with thousands of in situ Oldowan-like stone tools i. The Nihewan fluvio-lacustrine sediments do not contain material suitable for radio-isotopic dating e.
The exact ages of these Paleolithic sites thus have long been considered controversial. Only recently, reliable ages were assigned to some Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites based on high-resolution magnetostratigraphy; sites include Majuangou MJG dated at 1. During the initial excavation in only one artifact was found It has, however, very clear characteristics of man-made lithic technology Fig.
Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in china
Earlier this month, Scientific Reports included an article by Hong Ao and colleagues reporting a date for the Shangshazui archaeological locality in the Nihewan Basin of North China Ao This is now one of the earliest sites known for human activity in China, possibly the earliest, between 1. The dating of this site is part of a much larger story of archaeological dating in China.
 An Z S, Kun H C. New magnetostratigraphic dates of Lantian Homo erectus. Potts R, Hoffman K A. Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in China.
The fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary sequences in the Nihewan Basin, northern China, are important for studying Quaternary land mammal evolution and Paleolithic settlements in the high-latitude temperate East Asia. Here we report new magnetostratigraphic results that constrain age of the Hougou Paleolithic site in this basin. Magnetite and hematite were identified as carriers of the characteristic remanent magnetizations, with the former being dominant.
Magnetic polarity stratigraphy shows that the Hougou sequence recorded the very late Matuyama reverse chron and the Brunhes normal chron. The age of the Hougou Paleolithic site was estimated to be ka based on an averaged rate of sediment accumulation. The combination of our magnetostratigraphy and previously published chronological data for early Paleolithic or human sites in the high-latitude northern China may document a persistent colonization of the hostile high-latitude areas of the eastern Old World during the middle- early Pleistocene.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Barbour G B. Preliminary observation in the Kalgan Area.
Early expansions of hominins out of Africa
Situated at the base of the coastal cliffs, this association is characterized by many land mammals, trace fossils indicative of the Psilonichnus Ichnofacies, and irregularly distributed oyster bioherms. The age of onset of hyperaridity in the Atacama Desert, Chile, which is needed to validate geological and climatological concepts, has been heretofore uncertain. Before discussing Miocene apes, a few terms must be defined.
Zhu et al.s (, ) magnetostratigraphic dates of million years for at Goudi will undoubtedly shed new light on early hominid behavior in China.
Archaeological deposits were buried rapidly in primary context within shallow lake margin deposits, with only minor post-depositional disturbance from relatively low energy hydraulic forces. The FL lithic assemblage is characterized by a core and flake, Oldowan-like or Mode 1 technology, with a low degree of standardization, expedient knapping techniques, and casually retouched flakes. The bone assemblage suggests that hominin occupation of the FL site was in an open habitat of temperate grassland with areas of steppe and water.
The hominin invasion of China
Hong Ao, Mark J. Here, we report an increased cooling coupled with an intensified aridification for the Xiantai fluvio-lacustrine sequence of Pleistocene age 1. These include the sites of Majuangou 1.
Here, we report a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the provides new evidence for hominid occupation in North China in the earliest Pleistocene.
Several expansions of populations of archaic humans genus Homo out of Africa and throughout Eurasia took place in the course of the Lower Paleolithic , and into the beginning Middle Paleolithic , between about 2. These expansions are collectively known as Out of Africa I , in contrast to the expansion of Homo sapiens anatomically modern humans into Eurasia, which may have begun shortly after 0.
The earliest presence of Homo or indeed any hominin outside of Africa dates to close to 2 million years ago. A study claims human presence at Shangchen , central China, as early as 2. These remains are classified as Homo erectus georgicus. Later waves of expansion are proposed around 1. Until the early s, early humans were thought to have been restricted to the African continent in the Early Pleistocene , or until about 0.
Pre- Homo hominin expansion out of Africa is suggested by the presence of Graecopithecus and Ouranopithecus , found in Greece and Anatolia and dated to c. Possibly related are the Trachilos footprints found in Crete, dated to close to 6 million years ago.
Magnetostratigraphic dating of the hominin occupation of Bailong Cave, central China
Since , he has led international projects in Kenya and China devoted to understanding the ecological and behavioral conditions of human evolution. A revised Cenozoic geochronology and chronostratigraphy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Quaternary Research, , 69 1
A multi-method dating approach based on magnetostratigraphy, site in north China and influences on human’s occupation during the last.
By clicking register, I agree to your terms. All rights reserved. Design by w3layouts. This ESR chronology is consistent with the previous magnetochronology, thus providing strong support for the earliest human presence at the high northern latitudes of Northeast Asia. Keywords: Northeast Asia Northern latitudes Early human occupation Introduction The timing of early humans in the eastern Old World is a key issue in the study of early human evolution and migration An and Ho, ; Hou et al.
The Nihewan Basin in temperate northern China provides an important source of Paleolithic settlements and therefore early human occupation at high northern latitudes in Northeast Asia, thus serving as an important region for the study of early human evolution and migration Zhu et al. Therefore, magnetic polarity stratigraphy used to be considered the unique dating method in this region e.
In order to obtain independent dating results and to constrain their ages, four sedimentary layers of the Majuangou MJG section containing indisputable hominin stone tools were sampled for ESR analyses. Liu et al. It displays above the bedrock a red Jurassic volcanic breccia, a lacustrine sequence consisting mainly of greyish-yellow and greyish-green clays, silty clays and silts, with several layers of coarser-grained deposits corresponding to brief intervals of wetland and lake-margin dynamics.
Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in China
The Negev Desert in southern Israel hosts a number of late Cenozoic lacustrine and palustrine sedimentary sequences that attest for past wetter conditions in what today constitutes one of the driest deserts on Earth. These sequences are of special importance because the Negev Desert forms part of the Levantine Corridor, which was probably the only continental bridge that enabled initial out-of-Africa expansion of our genus Homo.
Yet, the paleoclimatic significance of these sequences still remains unknown, mainly due to their uncertain late Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Here we present a combined sedimentologic, paleontologic and magnetostratigraphic study of one of these sedimentary sequences, the so-called Kuntila Lake sediments, which was carried out at the 30 m-thick Kuntila Gate section in the Nahal Paran basin, southern Israel.
Sedimentological evidence and ostracod faunas indicate that these sediments accumulated in a long-lasting lacustrine basin that underwent periodic lake-level variations.
It is awarded for outstanding scientific contributions in the fields of magnetism and palaeomagnetism. East Asia is a key area for early human migration and evolution in the Old World. During the early Pleistocene, humans began to spread out of Africa. Detailed magnetostratigraphic dating coupled with high-precision isotopic chronology of early humans in mainland East Asia, western and southeastern Asia has provided insights into our understanding of early human adaptability to a variety of environments in the eastern Old World.
Before the Middle Pleistocene, early humans occupied over a broad latitudinal range, from temperate northern China e. Thus oldest recorded human dispersal to East Asia apparently culminated in the ability to adapt diverse environments. Around the Middle Pleistocene Climate Transition, when the climate of Earth underwent profound changes in the length and intensity of its glacial-interglacial cycles with the dominant periodicity of high-latitude climate oscillations changing from 41 kyr to kyr, there is a prominent early human flourishing in the high northern latitudes of East Asia and geographic expansion from low, through middle, to high northern latitudes of the area.
The improved ability to adjust to diverse environments for early humans could have benefited from the increasing variability of global, regional and local paleoclimates and paleoenvironments and from the innovation of diet, e. How to cite: Zhu, R. Orals MAL Early human occupation in mainland East Asia: Implication for climate change and human evolution not presented.
Ancient Chinese Tools Document Earliest Human Occupation of Northeast Asia
Timing of some point early human-to-human transmission of archaic humans genus homo erectus was not, research on the xiantai, vol. But at some early humans and their way there, xie f pan y x, 61 — www. During the shangshazui paleolithic sites in central china. China and modern humans, national museum of the feiliang site in science and deposition cycles in central china.
A revolution in paleomagnetic dating has made apparent the Early This is now one of the earliest sites known for human activity in China, possibly the earliest, These recently established magnetostratigraphic ages of the.
Quaternary Geochronology Quaternary Science Reviews 13, – Acharyya, S. Toba Ash on the Indian subcontinent and its implications for the correlation of Late Pleistocene alluvium. Quaternary Research 40, 10 – Adler, D. The Palaeolithic occupations at Ortvale Klde and their bearing on the prehistory of Transcaucasia. Journal of Human Evolution 38, A2 – A3. Agrawal, D. Volume 5.
Ahmedabad: Physical Research Laboratory. Alekseev, M. Unpublished 48 page Manuscript In Russian. Alemseged, Z.
Perhaps they set out in search of food, or maybe it was simply wanderlust. But at some point early humans left their African homeland and began to colonize other regions of the world. Scientists have only begun to formulate an understanding of the timing of these early migrations. Findings reported today in the journal Nature may thus shed some much-needed light on the matter.
yielded dates assigned to the early Matuyama (between and mya; Dennell et al. based on magnetostratigraphy, sedimentary layers formed between the Olduvai The human skull from Gongwangling (Lantian, China) could date to.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in China Earth-science Reviews, Richard Potts. Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in China. Earth-Science Reviews 61 — www. Reliable age determinations are pivotal for assessing the patterns of human evolution and dispersal in this region.
The quality and reliability of the paleomagnetic dates are also evaluated. New magnetostratigraphic results for the Xihoudu Paleolithic site in north-central China are also presented. Among the few hominin or Paleolithic sites in China from the early Pleistocene, five have been well investigated.